RBAC in Solaris
The following figure illustrates how the RBAC databases work together.In case of Solaris the user_attr,prof_attr,auth_attr,policy.c work together to make the RBAC work.Figure 7–1 RBAC Database RelationsThe user_attr databasestores the basic definitions for both users and roles, which are differentiated by the type field. The user_attrdatabase contains the attributes that are shown in the figure, which includes a comma-separated list of rights profile names.The user_attr is responsile for assigning the profiles,authorizations to the roles or users.The prof_attr databasecontains rights profile identification information, authorizations that are assigned to the profile, and supplementary profiles.The exec_attr databaseidentifies the security policy and contains commands with their associated security attributes. The auth_attr database supplies authorization information to the Sun Management Console tools.This is responsible for restricting users to run only certain commands.This defines the profiles to the commands which can be run by them.The auth_attr databasedefines the authorizations which can be given to users or roles in the user_attr database or the prof_attr database.The policy.conf data base:supplies default authorizations and rights profiles that are to be applied to all users.The user_attr DatabaseThe user_attr database contains user and role information that supplements the passwd and shadow databases. The user_attrdatabase contains extended user attributes such as authorizations, rights profiles, and assigned roles. The fields in the user_attrdatabase are separated by colons, as follows:
user:qualifier:res1:res2:attrThe following table describes these fields.The following example demonstrates how the Operator role is defined in a typical user_attr database and how it is assigned to userjohnDoe. Roles and users are differentiated by the type keyword.
% grep operator /etc/user_attr johnDoe::::type=normal;roles=sysadmin,operator operator::::profiles=Operator;type=role
The auth_attr DatabaseAll authorizations are stored in the auth_attr database. Authorizations can be assigned directly to users (or roles) in the user_attrdatabase. Authorizations can also be assigned to rights profiles, which are assigned to users.The fields in the auth_attr database are separated by colons, as follows:
authname:res1:res2:short_desc:long_desc:attrThe following table describes these fields.
Field Name Description authname A unique character string that is used to identify the authorization in the format prefix.[suffix]. Authorizations for the Solaris operating environment use solaris as a prefix. All other authorizations should use a prefix that begins with the reverse-order Internet domain name of the organization that creates the authorization (for example, com.xyzcompany). The suffix indicates what is being authorized, which is typically the functional area and operation.When the authname consists of a prefix and functional area and ends with a period, the authname serves as a heading to be used by applications in their GUIs, rather than as an actual authorization. The authname ofsolaris.printmgr. is an example of a heading.When authname ends with the word “grant,” the authname serves as a grant authorization and lets the user delegate authorizations with the same prefix and functional area to other users. The authname ofsolaris.printmgr.grant is an example of a grant authorization. solaris.printmgr.grant gives the user the right to delegate such authorizations as solaris.printmgr.admin and solaris.printmgr.nobanner to other users. res1 Reserved for future use. res2 Reserved for future use. short_desc A terse name for the authorization that is suitable for display in user interfaces, such as in a scrolling list in a GUI. long_desc A long description. This field identifies the purpose of the authorization, the applications in which it is used, and the type of user who might be interested in using it. The long description can be displayed in the help text of an application. attr An optional list of semicolon-separated (;) key-value pairs that describe the attributes of an authorization. Zero or more keys can be specified.The keyword help identifies a help file in HTML. Help files can be accessed from the index.html file in the/usr/lib/help/auths/locale/C directory.The following example shows an auth_attr database with some typical values.
% grep printer /etc/security/auth_attr solaris.admin.printer.:::Printer Information::help=AuthPrinterHeader.html solaris.admin.printer.delete:::Delete Printer Information::help=AuthPrinterDelete.html solaris.admin.printer.modify:::Update Printer Information::help=AuthPrinterModify.html solaris.admin.printer.read:::View Printer Information::help=AuthPrinterRead.htmlNote that solaris.admin.printer. is defined to be a heading, because it ends in a dot (.). Headings are used by the GUIs to organize families of authorizations.
The prof_attr DatabaseThe prof_attr database stores the name, description, help file location, and authorizations that are assigned to rights profiles. The commands and security attributes that are assigned to rights profiles are stored in the exec_attr database (see The exec_attrDatabase). The fields in the prof_attr database are separated by colons:
profname:res1:res2:desc:attrThe following table describes these fields.
Field Name Description profname The name of the rights profile. Rights profile names are case-sensitive. This name is also used by the user_attrdatabase to indicate rights profiles that are assigned to roles and users. res1 Reserved for future use. res2 Reserved for future use. desc A long description. This field should explain the purpose of the rights profile, including what type of user would be interested in using it. The long description should be suitable for display in the help text of an application. attr An optional list of key-value pairs that are separated by semicolons (;) that describes the security attributes to apply to the object on execution. Zero or more keys can be specified. The two valid keys are help and auths.The keyword help identifies a help file in HTML. Help files can be accessed from the index.html file in the/usr/lib/help/auths/locale/C directory.The keyword auths specifies a comma-separated list of authorization names that are chosen from those names that are defined in the auth_attr database. Authorization names can be specified with the asterisk (*) character as a wildcard.The following example shows a typical prof_attr database. Note that the Printer Management rights profile is a supplementary rights profile that is assigned to the Operator rights profile.
% grep 'Printer Management' /etc/security/prof_attr Printer Management:::Manage printers, daemons, spooling:help=RtPrntAdmin.html; \ auths=solaris.admin.printer.read,solaris.admin.printer.modify,solaris.admin.printer.delete \ Operator:::Can perform simple administrative tasks:profiles=Printer Management,\ Media Backup,All;help=RtOperator.html ...
The exec_attr DatabaseAn execution attribute is a command that is associated with a specific UID or GID and that is assigned to a rights profile. The command with its security attributes can be run by users or roles to whom the rights profile is assigned.The exec_attr database stores the definitions of the execution attributes.The fields in the exec_attr database are separated by colons:
name:policy:type:res1:res2:id:attrThe following table describes these fields.
Field Name Description name The name of the rights profile. Rights profile names are case-sensitive. The name refers to a rights profile in theprof_attr database. policy The security policy that is associated with this entry. Currently, suser (the superuser policy model) is the only valid entry. type The type of entity that is specified. Currently, the only valid entity type is cmd (command). res1 Reserved for future use. res2 Reserved for future use. id A string that identifies the entity. Commands should have the full path or a path with a wildcard. To specify arguments, write a script with the arguments and point the id to the script. attr An optional list of semicolon (;) separated key-value pairs that describes the security attributes to apply to the entity on execution. Zero or more keys can be specified. The list of valid keywords depends on the policy that is enforced. The four valid keys are euid, uid, egid, and gid.The euid and uid keywords contain a single user name or a numeric user ID (UID). Commands that are designated witheuid run with the effective UID indicated, which is similar to setting the setuid bit on an executable file. Commands that are designated with uid run with both the real and effective UIDs.The egid and gid keywords contain a single group name or numeric group ID (GID). Commands that are designated with egid run with the effective GID indicated, which is similar to setting the setgid bit on an executable file. Commands that are designated with gid run with both the real and effective GIDs.The following example shows some typical values from an exec_attr database.
% grep 'Printer Management' /etc/security/exec_attr Printer Management:suser:cmd:::/usr/sbin/accept:euid=lp Printer Management:suser:cmd:::/usr/ucb/lpq:euid=0 Printer Management:suser:cmd:::/etc/init.d/lp:euid=0 . . .
The policy.conf FileThe policy.conf file provides a way of granting specific rights profiles and authorizations to all users. The two types of entries in the file consist of key-value pairs. They are the following:
- AUTHS_GRANTED=authorizations – Refers to one or more authorizations
- PROFS_GRANTED=right profiles – Refers to one or more rights profilesThe following example shows some typical values from a policy.conf database.
# grep AUTHS /etc/security/policy AUTHS_GRANTED=solaris.device.cdrw # grep PROFS /etc/security/policy PROFS_GRANTED=Basic Solaris User
This was referred from:http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E19683-01/817-0365/6mg5vpmek/index.html
RBAC in LINUX
In case of Linux all these are taken care by a single file /etc/sudoers
To my understanding there is no right profile concept in Linux.It's all taken care
by grouping users.
CMD_ALIAS takes care of the work done by user_attr in Solaris.In Linux CMD_ALIAS is used to group commands whereas in Solaris user_attr is used to define commands to a particular profile.
# All the shutdown commands Cmnd_Alias SHUTDOWN_CMDS = /sbin/shutdown, /sbin/reboot, /sbin/halt # Printing commands Cmnd_Alias PRINTING_CMDS = /usr/sbin/lpc, /usr/sbin/lprm # Admin commands Cmnd_Alias ADMIN_CMDS = /usr/sbin/passwd, /usr/sbin/useradd, /usr/sbin/userdel, /usr/sbin/usermod, /usr/sbin/visudo # Web commands Cmnd_Alias WEB_CMDS = /etc/init.d/apache2
In Linux USER_ALIAS is used to group the users where as in Solaris we individually assign a role,profile to user in /etc/user_attr
# Everybody in the system group "admin" is covered by the alias ADMINS User_Alias ADMINS = %admin # The users "tom", "dick", and "harry" are covered by the USERS alias User_Alias USERS = tom, dick, harry # The users "tom" and "mary" are in the WEBMASTERS alias User_Alias WEBMASTERS = tom, mary # You can also use ! to exclude users from an alias # This matches anybody in the USERS alias who isn't in WEBMASTERS or ADMINS aliases User_Alias LIMITED_USERS = USERS, !WEBMASTERS, !ADMINS
Assigning a role or group to commands takes place in a single line in Linux whereas in Solaris we need to first define a role and then we need to independently assign the user to the role.
It takes place in Linux by the following step:
# User privilege specification root ALL=(ALL) ALL Here root can run any command from any terminal acting as any user.# Members of the admin group may gain root privileges %admin ALL=(ALL) ALLHere user belonging to the admin group can run any command from any terminal acting as any user.
To summarize in Linux it may look more simple to accomplish RBAC ,in Solaris it may look more standarized.sudo and the RBAC implementation accomplish the same basic objectives. The RBAC implementation has a GUI, a finer granularity, and name service compatibility. Most importantly, sudo is freeware, but RBAC is supported by sun.
For more detailed understanding you may refer to the below url: